Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), the lands inhabited by Arawakan and Cariban
tribes between the delta of rivers Oyapock
and Kanatuna belonged to Spain.
Yañez Pinzón explored the region in 1513.
unification of Iberian crowns in 1582, Portuguese and Spanish explorers made
raids into the territory.
beginning of the 17th century, the Tupi-Guarani tribe of Ywytyrawa (which called themselves Kaaûarãeûá) coming from the mountains
of Tumuk-Humak and led by
the legendary chief Ûijá Ûyrapirã, occupied the region, subduing former
inhabitants from other tribes.
finally became a colony of Portugal, as part of the Hereditary Captaincy of
Cabo da Costa Norte in 1637. French adventurers invaded those lands looking for
gold. A fort was built in the delta of Oyapock in 1698 and the village of Porto
da Mata started to grow around it.
the Jesuits began to catechize the natives, introducing the Catholic religion
and using the General Language of Amazonas (Língua
as lingua franca, until being expelled in 1758.
18th and 19th centuries, Portugal and France explored the
region, Portugal alleging it was part of the Portuguese Guiana (Potukaûiã). In 1853, after the
independence of Brazil, the Brazilian senator Cândido Mendes de Almeida
proposed the creation of the province of Oiapóquia, but the land remained disputed between Brazil and France.
Jules Gros declared in 1886 the creation
of the État Libre de Youtyrame under
the rule of France.
1, 1900, the Arbitration Commission of Geneva ceded possession of the territory
to France as the Province de Youtyrame.
independence of the Republic of Yutyrama was proclaimed in 1958 by Luís Cláudio
Cauirá which temporarily assumed the power, promising elections two years later,
being confirmed as president in 1960 by the Republican Party. In 1964, the
Indian leader Mateus Jutirá was elected president. His socialist politics and
rapprochement with the communist bloc unpleased most conservative sectors and
the local aristocracy. In 1966, a military coup overthrew the president who was
Diógenes Lima Vaz assumed the government, dissolved the Senate and started to
rule the country with an iron fist for nearly twenty years. Many violations to
the human rights were reported during this period. Drug traffic and poverty
dramatically increased, the economic situation was critical, with unemployment
and inflation. In the 80's, violent protests took over the country and finally
lead to the resignation of the dictator in 1988. Legislative and executive
elections were called. Alberto Parente, of the Liberal Party, was elected
president and re-elected in 1992. Cândido Frade, of the Republican Party
succeeded him in 1996 and 2000. In 2004, the Liberal Party returned to the
government with Alexandre “Arexã” Barros.
João Cûarajirã of the Green Party was appointed president, promising to
prioritize environmental protection and to fight against the social unbalance.
The economic situation became better, with emphasis to the ecotourism.
unexpected twist, the candidate of the Socialist Party, Francisco
"Chico" Matos Oiampi, won the second round of the elections with
support of the leftist parties and the Green Party and became president in
2012. The opposition - represented by the Republican and Liberal Parties -
alleged fraud in the elections and requested recount. Analysts feared a political
instability in the republic with the victory of the socialists.
In 2016, Luciana
Farias of the Green Party was elected president. However, the High Court deposed
her under the allegation of fraud and declared Jerônimo Parente as the new
president. Violent protests throughout the country led the Senate to approve
new elections. After a controversial electoral process, Maria Cecília "Ceci" Pyrãcé, of Communist Party was elected president.